I&I Tracking

The Cost of I & I

inflow and infiltration

Inflow and Infiltration (I&I) is a high impact cost for utilities. It occurs when groundwater and/or storm water flows into the wastewater collection system, through cracked sewer pipes, leaky manholes or undesired connections of down spouts and sump pumps.

Excessive I&I can overwhelm a collection system’s capacity creating overflows. I&I increases wastewater treatment plant flows unnecessarily increasing treatment plant processing costs.

To battle I&I, utilities seek to identify those segments of the collections system with the highest level of I&I. In effect, high wet-weather flows are compared to dry weather flows establishing a ratio.

Challenges of Meters
Conventional approaches for assessing I&I include the use of flow meters. While providing data to determine I&I sources, the use of flow meters tends to be slow, expensive and has increased risks. Meter users are typically challenged with by these factors:

  • Increased costs and risks of confined space entry for both installation and maintenance.
  • In-flow sensors are typically used requiring rigorous cleaning to assure repeatability.
  • Battery life is limited to a few months and often less which can result in data loss.
  • Many models lack radios and data must be collected remotely costing hours of labor to retrieve it.
  • For meters that have radios, cellular communication connectivity l and reliably is a challenge.

The bottom line: flow meters are expensive to purchase and more expensive to keep operational.  If the essential task is to determine where I&I is originating and to what degree (wet-dry ratio), then a new method to eliminate the meter challenges is needed.

Fast Low-Cost I&I Tracking
SmartCover Systems provides remote monitoring systems to track I&I.

Using either SmartLevel or SmartFLOE, these monitoring systems are designed to quickly and inexpensively identify collection system segments with the highest wet-dry ratios. In the process, SmartCover

Systems also eliminates the challenges posed by meters.

  • Installation never require confined space entry.
  • Non-contact sensor do not require maintenance.
  • The two-plus year batteries virtually eliminate changes and assure no data loss.
  • Advanced, high reliability satellite communications insure continuous, uninterrupted communications, delivered via the cloud.

If the problem is to track I&I, then SmartCover’s tracking solutions get users there faster, with repeatability and at a low cost.

Related Products


SmartLevel™ Monitoring System is an integrated, real-time remote water level monitoring system.


SmartFLOE™ Flow Estimation System provides a low-cost means for flow measurement and communication.